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Earth's climate response to...

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Earth's climate response to a changing Sun 1
Foreword 9
1 Why did I accept to write this foreword? 9
2 A surprising document 10
3 What do I get from this book? 11
4 Reaching the readers, the political world and the social targets 11
Preface 13
I INTRODUCTION TO THE SUN-CLIMATE CONNECTIONS 17
1.1 The Earth's atmosphere: an introduction 19
1.2 The Impact of Solar Variability on Climate 29
1.3 The Sun-Earth connection, on scales from minutes to millennia 35
1.4 The role of the Sun in climate change: a brief history 43
1.5 The role of the Sun in climate change: a societal viewpoint 51
1.6 The debate about solar activity and climate change 57
II SOLAR AND SPACE FORCING 69
2.1 Basics of solar and heliospheric modulation 71
2.2 Solar radiative forcing 83
2.3 Variability of solar and galactic cosmic rays 93
2.4 Variability and effects by solar wind 101
2.5 Variations of Solar Activity 107
2.6 Understanding solar activity 113
Infobox 2.1 Orbital forcing of glacial - interglacial cycles 119
Infobox 2.2 Grand minima and maxima of solar activity 127
Infobox 2.3 A practical guide to solar forcing data 129
III DETECTING SOLAR INFLUENCE ON CLIMATE 143
3.1 Observations on paleoclimatic time scales 145
3.2 Ground-based observations 155
3.3 Satellite observations 171
3.4 Reanalysis data 181
3.5 Uncertainties and unknowns in atmospheric observations: How do they affect the solar signal identification? 187
3.6 Numerical models of atmosphere and ocean 195
3.7 From climate to Earth system models 203
3.8 Uncertainties in the modeling of the solar influence on climate 211
3.9 Detection and attribution: How is the solar signal identified and distinguished from the response to other forcings? 219
Infobox 3.1 Why are models needed in the first place, and can they be trusted? 227
Infobox 3.2 Model Equations and how they are solved 229
IV IMPACTS ON THE EARTH SYSTEM 243
4.1 Direct impact of solar irradiance variability 245
4.2 'Top-down' versus 'bottom-up' mechanisms for solar-climate coupling 253
4.3 Interactions of Different Sources of Variability 263
4.4 Impact of solar variability on the magnetosphere 271
4.5 Atmospheric ionisation by solar energetic particle precipitation 277
4.6 Impact of energetic particle precipitation on atmospheric chemistry and climate 283
4.7 The impact of cosmic rays on clouds 289
4.8 Impact of solar variability on the global electric circuit 297
Infobox 4.1 Modeled impact of total solar irradiance (TSI) forcing 305
Infobox 4.2 Lightning, cosmic rays and energetic particles 309
Infobox 4.3 The influence of solar variability on extreme weather 313
V CONCLUSION 325
Conclusions 327

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